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Computer Architecture And Design Interview Questions and Answers

What are the different types of interrupts in a microprocessor system, explain.

In the normal execution of a program there are three types of interrupts that can cause a break:

  • External Interrupts: These types of interrupts generally come from external input / output devices which are connected externally to the processor. They are generally independent and oblivious of any programming that is currently running on the processor.
  • Internal Interrupts: They are also known as traps and their causes could be due to some illegal operation or the erroneous use of data. Instead of being triggered by an external event they are usually triggered due to any exception that has been caused by the program itself. Some of the causes of these types of interrupts can be due to attempting a division by zero or an invalid opcode etc.
  • Software interrupts: These types if interrupts can occur only during the execution of an instruction. They can be used by a programmer to cause interrupts if need be. The primary purpose of such interrupts is to switch from user mode to supervisor mode.
What is Virtual Memory in Computer?

Virtual memeory is that when the available RAM memory is not sufficient for the system to run the current applications it will take some memory from hard disk.This memory is termed as Virtual memory

State some of the common rules of assembly language.

Some of the common rules of assembly level language are as follows:

  • In assembly language the label field can be either empty or may specify a symbolic address.
  • Instruction fields can specify pseudo or machine instructions.
  • Comment fields can be left empty or can be commented with.
  • Up to 4 characters are only allowed in the case of symbolic addresses.
  • The symbolic addresses field are terminated by a comma whereas the comment field begins with a forward slash.
Explain How many types of memory in computer architecture?

computer have different type of memory like primary memory , Auxiliary memory , buffer memory , Cache memory , virtual memory ,
the work of all memory heterogeneously primary memory is directly communicate with the CPU . Auxiliary memory are used for storing the data for long time . Buffer memory are mainly used for storing the intermediate data between the travel . cache memory are used for storing the those data that currently required at process time for increase the speed of the data . virtual memory are put in between the two memory for increase the speed of data or instruction it means it put between HDD and RAM .

What do you understand vertical micro code, explain the designing strategy of a control unit coded on vertical code.
  • Vertical microcode can be considered to be a segment of code or operators that have been clubbed together into fields. In this field every micro operation is given a unique value.
  • This helps in efficient organization of related code together.
  • An effective design strategy could be in case of 2 micro operations occurring at the same state, to assign them two different fields.
  • A no operation NOP can be included in each field if necessary.
  • The remaining micro operations can be distributed among the other operation field bits.
  • Also micro operations that modify the same registers could be grouped together in the same field.
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